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A Guide To...Mathematics & Computer Science: Copyright


U. S. Constitution Article 1, Section 8 provides authors and inventors exclusive rights to the materials or item and gives the copyright holder certain rights in the use of the materials or item.  Violation of  copyright can result in criminal or civil penalties. 


Copyright laws allow the copyright owner to reproduce, distribute, perform, display or create additional works based on the work held by the copyright owner. 


This means you cannot in any way use the materials without permission from the owner, and if you do get permission, you must acknowledge the owner and/or originator of the work. 


The laws apply to printed works, performances of works, games, artwork, photographs, architecture, music, prepared speeches, even emails. 


Copyright is assumed for all works, and do not need to display the copyright symbol: ©. 


Items not copyrighted include spontaneous speeches, casual conversations, commonly known information (addresses, telephone numbers), slogans, and works in the public domain. 


Works in public domain include works created before 1923, works intentionally put in the public domain, works for which a copyright has expired without renewal, and works of the U.S. government. 


The author or creator of copyright generally owns the work, but it might be owned by a publisher or an employer.


Authors and creators are automatically given copyright-- they don't have to apply for it. but registering with the U.S. Copyright Office gives additional protections. 


Copyright lasts the life of the author plus 70 years. 


Fair Use


Fair use means that copyrighted materials can be used in a limited way without approval for personal use, education or research. Faculty and students can generally use small portions of copyrighted materials for scholarly purposes, but the copyright holder and or author/creator must be acknowledged. 



Acknowledgement: Xavier University Library XU.tutor