All education is a cooperative enterprise between faculty and students. This cooperation requires trust and mutual respect, which are only possible in an environment governed by the principles of academic honesty. As an institution devoted to teaching, learning, and intellectual inquiry, Holy Cross expects all members of the College community to abide by the highest standards of academic integrity. Any violation of academic honesty undermines the student-faculty relationship, thereby wounding the whole community. The principal violations of academic honesty are plagiarism, cheating, and collusion.
-From the Holy Cross student handbook - "Academic Integrity Policy"
Academic integrity, as defined by the International Center for Academic Integrity (ICAI), is a commitment by academic communities, "even in the face of adversity," to the six core values of "honesty, trust, fairness, respect, responsibility, and courage." Throughout most of the twentieth century, public outcries over academic misconduct were rare. This began to change in 1964, when sociologist William J. Bowers published Student Dishonesty and Its Control in College, which reported the results of the first large-scale survey of academic dishonesty among American college students. In the following decade, scandals surfaced involving both research integrity among academic scientists and student cheating at high-profile universities. Since then, academic institutions have devoted time and effort to fostering standards of academic integrity. Beginning in the late twentieth century, the ready availability of online resources intensified concerns that have only multiplied as technology has become more sophisticated.
-From Rholetter, W. Me. (2013). Academic integrity. Salem Press Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://holycross.idm.oclc.org/login?auth=cas&url=https://search-ebscohost-com.holycross.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=89677512&site=eds-live&scope=site
Direct plagiarism is the word-for-word transcription of a section of someone else’s work, without attribution and without quotation marks. The deliberate plagiarism of someone else's work is unethical, academically dishonest, and grounds for disciplinary actions, including expulsion. [See examples.]
Self-plagiarism occurs when a student submits his or her own previous work, or mixes parts of previous works, without permission from all professors involved. For example, it would be unacceptable to incorporate part of a term paper you wrote in high school into a paper assigned in a college course. Self-plagiarism also applies to submitting the same piece of work for assignments in different classes without previous permission from both professors.
Mosaic Plagiarism occurs when a student borrows phrases from a source without using quotation marks, or finds synonyms for the author’s language while keeping to the same general structure and meaning of the original. Sometimes called “patch writing,” this kind of paraphrasing, whether intentional or not, is academically dishonest and punishable – even if you footnote your source! [See examples.]
Accidental plagiarism occurs when a person neglects to cite their sources, or misquotes their sources, or unintentionally paraphrases a source by using similar words, groups of words, and/or sentence structure without attribution. (See example for mosaic plagiarism.) Students must learn how to cite their sources and to take careful and accurate notes when doing research. (See the Note-Taking section on the Avoiding Plagiarism page.) Lack of intent does not absolve the student of responsibility for plagiarism. Cases of accidental plagiarism are taken as seriously as any other plagiarism and are subject to the same range of consequences as other types of plagiarism.
-From Bowdoin College's "Types of Plagiarism"
The Council of Writing Program Administrators is a national association of college and university faculty with professional interests in directing writing programs.
From the WPA Council, December 2019: