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HIST 205: US 20th Century I (1890-1945) (Yuhl): Collect & Cite Research

Spring 2024

Citing in Chicago Style


For citing legal and government documents (for example, Congressional documents): 


If you are unsure as to how to cite a source, check with your professor or a librarian. You can also consult the resources listed on the previous tab. 

Article - from an online journal

Author Lastname, Firstname. "Article Title." Journal Title volume, no. issue (date): pages [if available]. DOI, stable URL or database name.

Polizzi, Craig, Steven Jay Lynn and Andrew Perry. "Stress and Coping in the Time of COVID-19: Pathways to Resilience and Recovery." Clinical Neuropsychiatry 17, no. 2 (2020: 59-62. doi:10.36131/CN20200204.

Article - from an online newspaper/magazine

Author Lastname, Firstname [if applicable]. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, month day, year. Stable URL or database name.

Keyes, Sarah. "Will COVID-19 Lead to Men and Women Splitting Care Work More Evenly?" Washington Post, May 12, 2020. Gale OneFile. 

Blog post 
Author Lastname, Firstname [or screenname if unknown]. "Post Title." Blog Title (blog), Blog Source [if applicable], month day, year. URL.

Pichardo, Margaret S., Briana Christophers and Gezzer Ortega. "The COVID-19 Response Is Failing Communities of Color." Voices (blog), Scientific American, May 7, 2020.


Author Lastname, Firstname. Book Title. City: Publisher, Date. E-Book Platform.

Skidmore, Max J. Presidents, Pandemics and Politics. New York; Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. SpringerLink. 

Image from a website 

**Make sure you are tracking down and citing an 'original' source, not just Google Images!**

Creator Lastname, Firstname [or screenname] [if known]. "Image Title." [insert citation for the image source according to normal rules for that source type].

Cote, Edd. "UMass Memorial Medical Center on Thursday Began A Special Coronavirus Screening Process for Referred Patients at Its University Campus in Worcester." Worcester Business Journal, March 19, 2020.

Interview - published (ex., in a newspaper, podcast, etc.) 

Interviewee Lastname, Firstname. "Interview Title." By InterviewerFullName. [insert citation for the interview source according to normal rules for that source type].

Dickson, Eric. "Dr. Eric Dickson, President & CEO of UMass Memorial Health Care Discusses How The System Is Faring In The Fight Against COVID-19." Spectrum News 1, April 27, 2020.

DiMokas, Elle. "Coronavirus Positive: 'People were just going about their lives’: Teacher Elle DiMokas Recounts Contracting COVID-19 in Spain, Traveling Back to U.S." By Tom Matthews. MassLive, April 4, 2020.

Interview - unpublished (usually one you've conducted yourself, or have found in an archive) 

Interviewee Lastname, Firstname (descriptive information, if appropriate). Interview by InterviewerFullName, location, month day, year. [Information for accessing a transcript and/or recording, if applicable].

Whelan, Joshua (high-school teacher). Interview by Jennifer Whelan, Plymouth, MA, July 6, 2020. Transcript, Holy Cross COVID Chronicles Collection, College of the Holy Cross Archives, Worcester, MA. 

**If your interviewee prefers not to be identified: Normally, you would leave the interviewee out of any bibliography and just include a footnote saying something like: 

Interview with high school teacher, July 6, 2020. 


Social media post

Author Lastname, Firstname [if known]/ (Screen name). "Text of the post, up to 160 characters." Social media platform and format/medium [if applicable], month day, year, timestamp [optional]. URL.

Sommer (@sfross_12). "Such a beautiful sight, on the last day on campus before going home for the rest of the semester due to COVID-19, a rainbow arcs over the @holy_cross campus." Twitter photo, March 13, 2020, 5:35 p.m.

Search Premier.

Collecting Research


It's very important to keep track of your resources and findings throughout your research process. There are many ways to do this -- the most important thing is to find a process that works for you, and that allows you to share your findings with others. 

Whatever your process, make sure that you find a way to: 

  1. Keep track of which notes (and especially quotations) came from which source;
  2. Note detailed directions like page numbers, where included, so that you can find the information again later; and
  3. Record all of the information needed to cite each source that you consult, even if you aren't sure yet whether you will use it. 


Citation Managers (for traditional "published" sources)

RefWorks isn't the only option -- if you prefer, you can use one of these third-party citation managers (but note that your use of them is governed by their terms of service,, and that we have limited control/troubleshooting ability!)

Collecting Unpublished and Multimedia Sources 

For "non-traditional' sources like interviews, images, social media, websites, etc. -- traditional reference tools don't always work particularly well. However, there are other tools available which are better suited for storing and organizing these types of sources. As with note-taking, there are many possibilities beyond this list -- these are just a few suggestions.

As a note: it's generally a good idea to save screenshots of web sources that may be temporary, especially social media posts, since they can be deleted, edited or taken down at any time! 


Other Options: 

And of course, you can also organize saved files in programs/apps like...