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A Guide to...African History

Chicago Style

Basics of Chicago Style:

If you are unsure, check with your professor. Note that Notes-Bibliography is the version of Chicago style which is done using footnotes. 
Need more help? Use the resources listed in the Chicago Citation Help box below. 


Book with a single author

Footnote: Peter Fawcus, Botswana: The Road to Independence (Gaborone: Pula Press and The Botswana Society, 2000), 10. 

Bibliography: Fawcus, Peter. Botswana: The Road to Independence. Gaborone: Pula Press and The Botswana Society, 2000.  

Chapter in an edited collection

Footnote: Michael Crowder, "Botswana and the Survival of Liberal Democracy in Afrcia," in Decolonization and African Independence: The Transfers of Power, 1960-1908, ed. Prosser Gifford and William Roger Lewis (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), 462. 

Bibliography: Crowder, Michael. “Botswana and the Survival of Liberal Democracy in Africa.” In Decolonization and African Independence: The Transfers of Power, 1960-1908. Edited by Prosser Gifford and William Roger Lewis, 461-476. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.   

Journal article from an online database

Footnote:  Luise White, "Students, ZAPU and Special Branch in Francistown, 1964-1972." Journal of Southern African Studies 40, no. 6 (2014): 1294. doi:10.1080/03057070.2014.964908. 

Bibliography:  White, Luise. "Students, ZAPU, and Special Branch in Francistown, 1964–1972." Journal of Southern African Studies 40, no. 6 (2014): 1289-1303. doi:10.1080/03057070.2014.964908. 

Newspaper/magazine article from an online database

Footnote:  “Two New Nations,” Time, 7 October 1966: 58.  Time Magazine Archive. 

Bibliography:  “Two New Nations.” Time, 7 October 1966. Time Magazine Archive. 

Chicago Style Resources:

Writing Annotated Bibliographies:

Each annotation should analyze and evaluate, not just summarize, the resource you read.

 Annotations should reflect your own experience with a source – don’t rely on reviews or summaries. 

 Your annotations should address such areas as:

  1. Arguments (what is the author arguing? do they do it well?);
  2. Comparisons between this source and other sources you are annotating;
  3. The relevance or usefulness of each source for your topic, and/or
  4. Other information about the source that struck you as particularly notable or useful. 

Ideally, you should aim to cover at least a couple of these points and have ~150-200 words in each annotation. 


Make sure that your bibliography is in the correct style. This means that

  1. Your citations should follow the Chicago (or other style) standard for whatever type of source you are citing;
     
  2. Each entry should be correctly formatted: with any second line of the citation and your annotations indented, in alphabetical order, and either double- or single-spaced, depending on what your style calls for. 

See the handout below for more tips and a sample bibliography: